İstifadəçi:Solavirum/Qaralama2

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  • Səsvermə müddəti: 23 avqust 2020-ci il — 7 sentyabr 2020-ci il.

Vikipediya layihəsinin ensiklopedik məzmunlarında – siyahılarda, cədvəllərdə, məlumat qutularında və naviqasiya qutularında istifadəsi oxucunu faydalı vizual işarələr ilə təmin edə bilər, ancaq eyni zamanda, bir sıra problemlər yarada da bilər. Əsas məsələlər haqqında göstərişlər aşağıda ümumiləşdirilmiş, daha sonra isə ətraflı şəkildə izah edilmişdir.

Biz burada nişanlar dedikdə, kiçik rəsm faylları, tipoqrafik dinqbatlar, emocilər və ya CSS displey manipulyasiyaları ilə əmələ gəlmələrindən asılı olmayaraq, bütün kiçik rəsmləri – loqolar, heraldika, gerblər, möhürlər və bayraqları, eləcə də digər dekorasiyaları nəzərdə tuturuq.

TəsvirlərRedaktə

Uyğun istifadəRedaktə

Təsvirlər müəyyən vəziyyətlərdə faydalı ola bilər:

Uyğunsuz istifadəRedaktə

Ümumi məqalə nəsrində nişanlardan istifadə etməyinRedaktə

Nişanlar məqalənin bədənindəki nəsrdə istifadə edilməməlidir, necə ki, burada edilib: "Ayxan 2015-ci ilin mayında İtaliyanın   Turin şəhərinə köçdü". Bu, oxucunun diqqətini yayındıraraq mətnin davamlılığını pozur.

Ensiklopedik məqsədRedaktə

Nişanlar ensiklopedik məqsədə xidmət etməlidir və sadəcə dekorativ olmamalıdır. Onlar ya məqalə mövzusuna əlavə faydalı məlumatlar təqdim etməli, ya da oxucunun məqaləni başa düşməsinə kömək edən və ya naviqasiyanı yaxşılaşdıran vizual göstərişlər kimi xidmət etməlidirlər. Nişanlar yalnız yaxşı göründükləri üçün əlavə edilməməlidir. Bir oxucunun zərərsiz dekorasiyası digər oxucunun diqqətini yayan bir şey ola bilər. Nişanlar oxucunun məqalə mövzusunu başa düşməsində kömək etmədiyi və naviqasiya funksiyasını yerinə yetirmədiyi halda tamamilə dekorativdir. Nişanlar yalnız tərtibat məqsədləri üçün istifadə edildikdə, alternativ olaraq siyahı işarələrindən istifadə etməyi nəzərə alın.

Bölmə başlıqlarına nişanlar qoymayın. Bu bir əlçatanlıq problemidir.

Çoxlu nişlanlardan istifadə etməyiRedaktə

Nişanlardan həddindən artıq dərəcədə istifadə edildikdə, səhifəni ləkələyir və artıq görünür. Həddindən artıq nişanlardan istifadə edən səhifələr interneti o qədər də güclü olmayan bəzi oxucular üçün yükləmə problemlərinə də səbəb ola bilər.

Nişanlara legitim hüdudlarından kənarda yenidən məqsəd verməyinRedaktə

Nişanlar müəyyən bir varlığı təmsil edə bilər və məsələn, mövzuya uyğun bir bayraq mövcud deyil deyə başqa bir şeyi təmsil etməsi üçün ona yenidən başqa bir məqsəd verilməməlidir. Məsələn, BMT-nin bayrağını bütün dünyanı təmsil etmək üçün sui-istifadə etmək buna aiddir, çünki bu beynəlxalq təşkilatın rəsmi bayrağının düzgün istifadəsi deyil.

Nişanları təhrif etməyinRedaktə

Qeyri-ümumi simvolları Vikipediyadan kənarda istifadə edilməyən bir şəkildə dəyişdirməyin və onlardan istifadə etməyin. Belə bir təhrifə nümunə kimi, Şimali Amerika bayraqlarının bütövlükdə Şimali Amerikanı təmsil etməsi üçün istifadəçi tərəfindən dəyişdirilmiş bir şəkli göstərmək olar.

Gözdən əlillər üçün əlçatanlığı unutmayınRedaktə

Hər funksional nişanda alternativ mətnin, yəni şəklin vizual görünüşünü təsvir edən mətnin olması daha üstün tutulur. Bu alt mətnin verilməməsi, nişanları ekran oxucuları və ya yalnız mətnləri nümayiş edən brauzerlərindən istifadə edənlər üçün çox vaxt mənasız və çaşdırıcı hala gətirir. Alternativ mətni təmin etmək üçün təsviri şəkil işarələməsinin sonuna əlavə edin. Məsələn, "[[Şəkil:Commons-logo.svg|30x30px|link=Commons:Special:Search|Vikianbarda axtarış et]]" Vikianbar axtarışına keçid verir və "Vikianbarda axtarış et" deyə bir yazını qeyd edən alternativ mətnə malikdir. Şəkil xəritələrində əsas şəkil və hər çıqqıldadılan sahə üçün alternativ mətn göstərilməlidir

BayraqlarRedaktə

Uyğun istifadəRedaktə

Flag icons may be relevant in some subject areas, where the subject actually represents that country or nationality – such as military units or national sports teams. In lists or tables, flag icons may be relevant when such representation of different subjects is pertinent to the purpose of the list or table itself.

Words as the primary means of communication should be given greater precedence over flags, and flags should not change the expected style or layout of infoboxes or lists to the detriment of words.

The use of ship registry flags and International Code of Signals flags in infoboxes of ship articles is appropriate.

See § Inappropriate use for when to not use flags even if the information seems pertinent (in which case, add it in word form).

User choice: Registered users can add a .flagicon {display:none;} CSS rule to their user-specific stylesheet to hide content with the flagicon class (which is used by most flag templates).

Consistency is not paramountRedaktə

If the use of flags in a list, table or infobox makes it unclear, ambiguous or controversial, it is better to remove the flags even if that makes the list, table or infobox inconsistent with others of the same type where no problems have arisen.

Avoid flag icons in infoboxesRedaktə

Generally, flag icons should not be used in infoboxes, even when there is a "country", "nationality" or equivalent field: they are unnecessarily distracting and give undue prominence to one field among many.

Flag icons should only be inserted in infoboxes in those cases where they convey information in addition to the text. Flag icons lead to unnecessary disputes when over-used. Examples of acceptable exceptions include infobox templates for military conflicts and infoboxes including international competitions, such as FIFA World Cup or the Olympic Games. The documentation of a number of common infoboxes (e.g., Template:Infobox company, Template:Infobox film, Template:Infobox person, Template:Infobox football biography, Template:Infobox weapon) has long explicitly deprecated the use of flag icons.

The use of ship registry flags and International Code of Signals flags in infoboxes of ship articles is appropriate.

As with other biographical articles, flags are discouraged in sportspeople's individual infoboxes even when there is a "country", "nationality", "sport nationality" or equivalent field: they may give undue prominence to one field over others. However, the infobox may contain the national flag icon of an athlete who competes in competitions where national flags are commonly used as representations of sporting nationality in a given sport.

Human geographic articles – for example settlements and administrative subdivisions – may have flags of the country and first-level administrative subdivision in infoboxes. However, physical geographic articles – for example, continents, islands, mountains, valleys, rivers, lakes, swamps, etc. – should not. Where one article covers both human and physical geographic subjects (e.g., Manhattan, which covers both the borough of New York City and the island of the same name), or where the status of the territory is subject to a political dispute, the consensus of editors at that article will determine whether flag use in the infobox is preferred or not.

Accompany flags with country namesRedaktə

The name of a flag's political entity should appear adjacent to the first use of the flag, as no reader is familiar with every flag, and many flags differ only in minor details. Nearby uses of the flag need not repeat the name, especially in a list or table. (For example, in this infobox, flags of countries involved in a battle are first given with their names. Following this, the flag alone is used to identify the nationality of military commanders.) To achieve this, the flag-and-name template {{flag|Japan}} (or {{flag|JPN}}) would be used first, and {{flagicon|JPN}} in subsequent uses. However, some editors feel that some tables such as those containing sports statistics (example) are easier to read if {{flag}} is used throughout.

However, first appearances in different sections, tables or lists in a long article may warrant a repetition of the name, especially if the occurrences are likely to be independently reached via links from other articles targeting an {{anchor}}. Use of flag templates without country names is also an accessibility issue, since the images rendered can be difficult for color blind readers to understand. In addition, flags can be hard to distinguish when reduced to icon size.

Historical considerationsRedaktə

Flags change, and sometimes the geographical or political area(s) to which a flag applies may also change.

Use historical flags in contexts where the difference mattersRedaktə

Use a historical flag and associated country name when they have at least a semi-officially applicable rationale to use them. For example, in lists of Olympic medalists, the USSR flag and country name should be used for reporting before 1992, not those of the Russian Federation or the CIS.

In some military history contextsRedaktə

It may in some narrow military history circumstances be appropriate to use flags, as they were used at the time being written about, including naval ensigns, provided that the flags are (as usual) accompanied at first occurrence by their country (or more narrow) names—our readers are not expected to be military historians. An example might be an in-depth exploration of a famous battle involving numerous forces with known flags; such flags might be used in summary tables to make it clearer which force was being referred to for a particular detail.

Entities without flags until after a certain point in timeRedaktə

Some subnational entities have not had flags until recently (e.g. the Welsh flag has only been official since 1959). While this flag can still represent Wales generally, it should not be used to represent the country when the context is specifically about a time period predating the flag. Some countries are also new, formed from parts of, or entirely subsuming, one or more other countries. It may need to be decided by consensus on a case-by-case basis what flag to use, when a topic crosses two periods and a conflict arises as to what country the topic pertains to in what contexts.

Political issuesRedaktə

Beware of political pitfalls, and listen to concerns raised by other editors. Some flags are (sometimes or always) political statements and can associate a person with their political significance, sometimes misleadingly. In other cases, a flag may have limited and highly specific official uses, and an application outside that context can have political (e.g. nationalist or anti-nationalist) implications.

Use of flags for non-sovereign states and nationsRedaktə

The exact definition of a "state", "nation" or "country" is often politically divisive and can result in debates over the choice of flag. For example, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are referred to by the British government as "countries" within the United Kingdom [1]; the Canadian House of Commons recognised the Québécois as "a nation within a united Canada";[2] and the United States recognizes many Native American tribal groupings as semi-independent "nations".

In general, if a flag is felt to be necessary, it should be that of the sovereign state (e.g. the United States of America or Canada) and not that of a subnational entity, even if that entity is sometimes considered a "nation" or "country" in its own right. This is partly for the sake of consistency across Wikipedia, but also because a person's legal citizenship is verifiable, whereas "nationality" within a country can be porous, indeterminate and shifting. An English person's passport describes them as a "British citizen", for example, not "English"; being English is a matter of self-identification, not a verifiable legality in most cases. Many editors, however, feel that the UK's subnations in particular are an exception in sporting contexts, and disputes are likely to arise if this sovereign state maxim is enforced in articles on subnational British topics.

Overbroad use of flags with politicized connotationsRedaktə

Some flags are politically contentious – take care to avoid using them in inappropriate contexts. Some examples are:

  1. Use of the flags of the Confederate States of America to represent all or part of the Southern United States prior to 1861 or after 1865.
  2. Use of the Ulster Banner to represent Northern Ireland in inappropriate contexts; see Northern Ireland flags issue and Wikipedia:Irish flags for details.
  3. Use of the Apartheid-era Flag of South Africa (1928–1994) instead of the present-day one.

Inappropriate useRedaktə

Do not emphasize nationality without good reasonRedaktə

Wikipedia is not a place for nationalistic pride. Flags are visually striking, and placing a national flag next to something can make its nationality or location seem to be of greater significance than other things. For example, with an English flag next to him, Paul McCartney looks like an "English singer-songwriter from Liverpool who was in the Beatles"; without the flag next to him, he looks like an "English singer-songwriter from Liverpool who was in the Beatles". Emphasizing the importance of a person's citizenship or nationality above their other qualities risks violating Wikipedia's "Neutral point of view" policy.

Do not use a flag when a picture of the subject is not availableRedaktə

A flag (or other symbolic image) should not be used as an image placeholder, such as in biographical articles. While it may be appropriate to use a flag or seal as the principal image in an infobox for the organizational entity it represents (for example, the FBI), in most cases these articles have an infobox with the flag or seal image (example).

Do not use subnational flags without direct relevanceRedaktə

Subnational flags (regions, cities, etc.) should generally be used only when directly relevant to the article. Such flags are rarely recognizable by the general public, detracting from any shorthand utility they might have, and are rarely closely related to the subject of the article. For instance, the flag of Tampa, Florida, is appropriately used on the Tampa article. However, the Tampa flag should generally not be used on articles about residents of Tampa: it would not be informative, and it would be unnecessarily visually distracting.

A common example of use of subnational flags would be that of a list concerned with subdivisions of a specific country.

Do not use supranational flags without direct relevanceRedaktə

Supranational flags (those of international organizations) should generally be used only when directly relevant to the article. For instance, the Flag of Europe is appropriately used on articles related to the European Union, the Council of Europe and other situations where this flag can be used to represent Europe. In sport, supranational flags should only be used to represent a supranational team or a supranational competition, where the team or competition use the supranational flag. The European flag should generally not be used alongside a national flag in articles about residents of EU member states; it would not be informative, and it would be unnecessarily visually distracting.

Do not rewrite historyRedaktə

Flags should not be used to misrepresent the nationality of a historical figure, event, object, etc. Political boundaries change, often over the span of a biographical article subject's lifetime. Where ambiguity or confusion could result, it is better not to use a flag at all, and where one is genuinely needed, use the historically accurate flag.

For example, writer Oscar Wilde, a native of Ireland while that island was entirely part of the United Kingdom, should have neither an Irish flag nor a British flag, as either would confuse readers.

Do not use flags in genocide-related lists and articlesRedaktə

Flags are typically poor or simplistic representations of the sides in such conflicts, and do little to aid understanding. Any value they might have is outweighed by the excessively inflammatory nature of flags in such contexts.

Biographical useRedaktə

Flags make simple, blunt statements about nationality, while words can express the facts with more complexity. For example, the actress Naomi Watts could be said, depending upon context and point of view, to be any or all of: British, English, Welsh, or Australian. She was born a British citizen in England, lived in Wales for a long time, then moved to Australia and became an Australian citizen. There is no single flag for that, and using all four flags will not be helpful.

Flags are discouraged in the individual infoboxes of biographical articles. Special care should be taken with the biographical use of flag templates in the following situations:

  • Never use a flag for birth or death place, since doing so may imply an incorrect citizenship or nationality; a great many people have been born or have died abroad. (For example, actor Johnny Galecki was born in Belgium, so putting a Belgian flag in his infobox, for any reason, might lead the casual reader to assume he is or was Belgian.)
  • In cases of emigration or periods of foreign residence, do not use the flag of the country of residence unless legal citizenship was achieved.
  • In a case of reliably sourced renunciation of citizenship of a country, do not use the flag and name of that former country to indicate an article subject's nationality; if a flag is used at all, use that of the later nationality.
  • If someone's citizenship has legally changed because of shifting political borders, use the historically correct country designation, not a later one, and perhaps mention in the article prose the new country name, e.g. "Belgrade, Yugoslavia (today in Serbia)"; it may also be best to avoid using any flag at all.
  • Use the flag and name of the country (be it a state or a nation) that the person (or team of people) officially represented, regardless of citizenship, when the flag templates are used for sports statistics and the like. If a French player is awarded a medal for playing in a German team, the German flag would be used in a table of awards. The Scottish flag would be used with regard to the FIFA World Cup, but that of the UK for the Olympics. Caution should be used in extending this convention to non-sporting contexts, as it may produce confusing results. And a countervailing example would be an article about a sports team that officially represents a particular country but is composed of members who are citizens of several countries; a table of players at such an article might list them by their country of actual citizenship or professed nationality.
  • Avoid flag usage, especially to present a point of view, that is likely to raise editorial controversy over political or other factual matters about a biography subject.
See also "Historical considerations" for other relevant recommendations.

SportspersonsRedaktə

Flags should never indicate the player's nationality in a non-sporting sense; flags should only indicate the sportsperson's national squad/team or Şablon:Em.

Where flags are used in a table, it should clearly indicate that they correspond to Şablon:Em, not Şablon:Em, if any confusion might arise.

Flags should generally illustrate the highest level the sportsperson is associated with. For example, if a sportsperson has represented a nation or has declared for a nation, then the national flag as determined by the sport governing body should be used (these can differ from countries' political national flags). If a sportsperson has not competed at the international level, then the eligibility rules of the international sport governing body (such as IRB, FIFA, IAAF, etc.) should be used. If these rules allow a player to represent two or more nations, then a reliable source should be used to show who the sportsperson has chosen to represent.

If a sportsperson most usually represents a specific country (e.g., Germany) but has represented a larger, supernational entity on some occasions (e.g., Europe) it may be more appropriate to use the national flag; this will often need to be determined on an article-by-article basis.

Subnational flags (e.g., England rather than UK) are traditionally used in some sports, and should not be changed to the national flag without consensus.

LogosRedaktə

The insertion of logos as icons into articles is strongly discouraged: While illustration of a logo may be appropriate at the main article on the topic to which the logo pertains, use of logos as icons is not useful to our readers, and often presents legal problems.

Non-free imagesRedaktə

Use of company logos, sports team crests, and other images protected as intellectual property (including as copyrights, trademarks, and service marks) in articles can only be done on a fair use basis. Use of such images is nearly always prohibited (for more information, see Wikipedia:Non-free use rationale guideline and Wikipedia:Logos).

Free imagesRedaktə

While legal problems may not be present (no intellectual property right being claimable), all of this guideline's rationales against use of icons as decoration still apply. Generally, addition of logos to article prose or tabular data does not improve the encyclopedia and leads to confusing visual clutter.


Şablon:Manual of Style