Sosial sinif

iyerarxik sosial təbəqələşmə

Sosial sinifcəmiyyətlər və ya mədəniyyətlər daxilində mövcud olan fərdlər və ya qrupların arasındakı iyerarxik fərqlərə (və ya təbəqələşməyə) əsaslanır. Burada əsasən, fərdlər sinif daxilindəki iqtisadi mövqelərinə, təbəqələşmə sistemi daxilində isə bir-biri ilə oxşar olan siyasi və iqtisadi maraqlarına görə qruplaşdırılırlar.

Əksər cəmiyyətlərdə, xüsusən də milli dövlətlərin mövcud olduğu cəmiyyətlərdə sosial sinfi xüsusiyyətlərin nümayiş etdirildiyi görülür.[1] Lakin siniflər universal bir hadisə deyildirlər. Bir çox ibtidai icma quruluşu formasında yaşayan ovçu-yığıcı cəmiyyətlərdə sosial təbəqələşmə mövcud deyildir. Bu cür cəmiyyətlərdə çox zaman daimi liderlər də mövcud olmur və cəmiyyət üzvləri özləri də iyerarxik güc strukturlarına bölünməkdən çəkinirlər.[2]

Əlavə ədəbiyyat siyahısı

  • Archer, Louise et al. Higher Education and Social Class: Issues of Exclusion and Inclusion (RoutledgeFalmer, 2003) (ISBN 0-415-27644-6)
  • Aronowitz, Stanley, How Class Works: Power and Social Movement Arxivləşdirilib 2023-04-08 at the Wayback Machine, Yale University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-300-10504-5
  • Barbrook, Richard. The Class of the New (paperback). London: OpenMute. 2006. ISBN 978-0-9550664-7-4. 1 August 2018 tarixində arxivləşdirilib. İstifadə tarixi: 15 March 2022.
  • Beckert, Sven, and Julia B. Rosenbaum, eds. The American Bourgeoisie: Distinction and Identity in the Nineteenth Century (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 284 pages; Scholarly studies on the habits, manners, networks, institutions, and public roles of the American middle class with a focus on cities in the North.
  • Benschop, Albert. Classes – Transformational Class Analysis Arxivləşdirilib 18 avqust 2018 at the Wayback Machine (Amsterdam: Spinhuis; 1993/2012).
  • Bertaux, Daniel & Thomson, Paul; Pathways to Social Class: A Qualitative Approach to Social Mobility (Clarendon Press, 1997)
  • Bisson, Thomas N.; Cultures of Power: Lordship, Status, and Process in Twelfth-Century Europe (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995)
  • Blackledge, Paul. "Why workers can change the world". Socialist Review. 364. London. 2011. 10 December 2011 tarixində arxivləşdirilib.
  • Blau, Peter & Duncan Otis D.; The American Occupational Structure (1967) classic study of structure and mobility
  • Brady, David "Rethinking the Sociological Measurement of Poverty" Social Forces Vol. 81 No. 3, (March 2003), pp. 715–751 (abstract online Arxivləşdirilib 4 mart 2016 at the Wayback Machine in Project Muse).
  • Broom, Leonard & Jones, F. Lancaster; Opportunity and Attainment in Australia (1977)
  • Cohen, Lizabeth; Consumer's Republic, (Knopf, 2003) (ISBN 0-375-40750-2). (Historical analysis of the working out of class in the United States).
  • Connell, R.W and Irving, T.H., 1992. Class Structure in Australian History: Poverty and Progress. Longman Cheshire.
  • de Ste. Croix, Geoffrey. "Class in Marx's conception of history, ancient and modern". New Left Review. I (146). July–August 1984: 94–111. 4 March 2016 tarixində arxivləşdirilib. İstifadə tarixi: 7 January 2016. (Good study of Marx's concept.)
  • Dargin, Justin The Birth of Russia's Energy Class, Asia Times (2007) (good study of contemporary class formation in Russia, post communism)
  • Day, Gary; Class, (Routledge, 2001) (ISBN 0-415-18222-0)
  • Domhoff, G. William, Who Rules America? Power, Politics, and Social Change, Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall, 1967. (Domhoff's companion site to the book Arxivləşdirilib 26 yanvar 2009 at the Wayback Machine at the University of California, Santa Cruz)
  • Eichar, Douglas M.; Occupation and Class Consciousness in America (Greenwood Press, 1989)
  • Fantasia, Rick; Levine, Rhonda F.; McNall, Scott G., eds.; Bringing Class Back in Contemporary and Historical Perspectives (Westview Press, 1991)
  • Featherman, David L. & Hauser Robert M.; Opportunity and Change (1978).
  • Fotopoulos, Takis, Class Divisions Today: The Inclusive Democracy approach Arxivləşdirilib 1 sentyabr 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Democracy & Nature, Vol. 6, No. 2, (July 2000)
  • Fussell, Paul; Class (a painfully accurate guide through the American status system), (1983) (ISBN 0-345-31816-1)
  • Giddens, Anthony; The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies, (London: Hutchinson, 1981).
  • Giddens, Anthony & Mackenzie, Gavin (Eds.), Social Class and the Division of Labour. Essays in Honour of Ilya Neustadt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
  • Goldthorpe, John H. & Erikson Robert; The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Society (1992)
  • Grusky, David B. ed.; Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective (2001) scholarly articles
  • Hazelrigg, Lawrence E. & Lopreato, Joseph; Class, Conflict, and Mobility: Theories and Studies of Class Structure (1972).
  • Hymowitz, Kay; Marriage and Caste in America: Separate and Unequal Families in a Post-Marital Age (2006) ISBN 1-56663-709-0
  • Kaeble, Helmut; Social Mobility in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Europe and America in Comparative Perspective (1985)
  • Jakopovich, Daniel, The Concept of Class Arxivləşdirilib 24 sentyabr 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Cambridge Studies in Social Research, No. 14, Social Science Research Group, University of Cambridge, 2014
  • Jens Hoff, "The Concept of Class and Public Employees". Acta Sociologica, vol. 28, no. 3, July 1985, pp. 207–226.
  • Mahalingam, Ramaswami; "Essentialism, Culture, and Power: Representations of Social Class" Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 59, (2003), pp. 733+ on India
  • Mahony, Pat & Zmroczek, Christine; Class Matters: 'Working-Class' Women's Perspectives on Social Class (Taylor & Francis, 1997)
  • Manza, Jeff & Brooks, Clem; Social Cleavages and Political Change: Voter Alignments and U.S. Party Coalitions (Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • Manza, Jeff; "Political Sociological Models of the U.S. New Deal" Annual Review of Sociology, (2000) pp. 297+
  • Manza, Jeff; Hout, Michael; Clem, Brooks. "Class Voting in Capitalist Democracies since World War II: Dealignment, Realignment, or Trendless Fluctuation?". Annual Review of Sociology. 21. 1995: 137–162. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.21.1.137.
  • Marmot, Michael; The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects Our Health and Longevity (2004)
  • Marx, Karl & Engels, Frederick; The Communist Manifesto, (1848). (The key statement of class conflict as the driver of historical change).
  • Merriman, John M.; Consciousness and Class Experience in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1979)
  • Ostrander, Susan A.; Women of the Upper Class (Temple University Press, 1984).
  • Owensby, Brian P.; Intimate Ironies: Modernity and the Making of Middle-Class Lives in Brazil (Stanford University, 1999).
  • Pakulski, Jan & Waters, Malcolm; The Death of Class (Sage, 1996). (rejection of the relevance of class for modern societies)
  • Payne, Geoff; The Social Mobility of Women: Beyond Male Mobility Models (1990)
  • Savage, Mike; Class Analysis and Social Transformation (London: Open University Press, 2000).
  • Stahl, Garth; "Identity, Neoliberalism and Aspiration: Educating White Working-Class Boys" (London, Routledge, 2015).
  • Sennett, Richard & Cobb, Jonathan; The Hidden Injuries of Class, (Vintage, 1972) (classic study of the subjective experience of class).
  • Siegelbaum, Lewis H., Suny, Ronald; eds.; Making Workers Soviet: Power, Class, and Identity. (Cornell University Press, 1994). Russia 1870–1940
  • Wlkowitz, Daniel J.; Working with Class: Social Workers and the Politics of Middle-Class Identity (University of North Carolina Press, 1999).
  • Weber, Max. "Class, Status and Party", in e.g. Gerth, Hans and C. Wright Mills, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, (Oxford University Press, 1958). (Weber's key statement of the multiple nature of stratification).
  • Weinburg, Mark; "The Social Analysis of Three Early 19th century French liberals: Say, Comte, and Dunoyer" Arxivləşdirilib 24 dekabr 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 45–63, (1978).
  • Wood, Ellen Meiksins; The Retreat from Class: A New 'True' Socialism, (Schocken Books, 1986) (ISBN 0-8052-7280-1) and (Verso Classics, January 1999) reprint with new introduction (ISBN 1-85984-270-4).
  • Wood, Ellen Meiksins; "Labor, the State, and Class Struggle", Monthly Review, Vol. 49, No. 3, (1997).
  • Wouters, Cas.; "The Integration of Social Classes". Journal of Social History. Volume 29, Issue 1, (1995). pp 107+. (on social manners)
  • Wright, Erik Olin; The Debate on Classes (Verso, 1990). (neo-Marxist)
  • Wright, Erik Olin; Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
  • Wright, Erik Olin ed. Approaches to Class Analysis (2005). (scholarly articles)
  • Zmroczek, Christine & Mahony, Pat (Eds.), Women and Social Class: International Feminist Perspectives. (London: UCL Press 1999)
  • The lower your social class, the 'wiser' you are, suggests new study Arxivləşdirilib 22 iyul 2022 at the Wayback Machine. Science. 20 December 2017.


  1. Habermas, J. (2006). "the European Nation State - Its Achievments and Its Limits. On the Past and Future Sovereignty and Citizenship", in G. Balakrishan (ed.) Mapping the Nation. London: Vernon. 281 - 294
  2. Gowdy, John (2006) "Hunter-gatherers and the mythology of the market," in Richard B. Lee and Richard H. Daly (eds.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers, pp.391-394. New York: Cambridge University Press